Managing vertebrates can be challenging due to legal restrictions on trapping and use of chemicals. The information provided below is to help the reader understand general biology and what typical control options are. However, if an information source was produced outside of WA, some of their recommendations may not be legal within the state. Contact your local Extension or WSDA wildlife expert to make sure management activities are legal before attempting them.
- Attracting and Retaining Birds of Prey (.pdf) – NRCS Factsheet
- Standards for Bird Control in Vineyards (.pdf) – Oregon Wine Board
- Building Birdhouses to Attract Insect-Eating Birds – UI #Wildlife 4
- Nonlethal Bird Deterrent Strategies – OSU #EM9286
Deer / Elk
- Non-lethal Methods for Controlling Deer Damage – Conneticut Webpage
- Controlling Deer in Idaho Horticultural Crops (.pdf) – UI Factsheet
- Late-Season Bird and Deer Control in Vineyards – eXtension
- Living with White-tailed Deer: Evaluating Damage and Potential Solutions – U of Illinois
- White-tailed Deer – Biology and Management (.pdf) – Cornell University
Sage Rats / Badgers / Voles
- Integrated Pest Management for Voles (.pdf) – NRCS Idaho
- Meadow Voles and Pocket Gophers (.pdf) – PNW #627
- Rodents – Wildlife Damage Management
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