Establishing a Vineyard

Table of Contents

  1. Importance of Clean Plants and Quarantines
  2. Getting Started
  3. Vineyard Design Considerations
  4. Washington State: Geology and Climate
  5. Soils
  6. Variety and Rootstock Selection
  7. Trellis Design and Vine Training
  8. Field-Grafting Grapevines
  9. Other Resources

 

Importance of Clean Plants and Quarantines

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE:

Regardless of whether you are a commercial grape producer or a backyard enthusiast, Washington State has strict quarantines regarding where your grapes come from.  DO NOT bring back grape plants from your trips abroad (whether domestic or international). Doing so may result in very strict fines, but more importantly, may bring in diseases and pests that could severely hurt the commercial grape industry.  ONLY buy stock from reputable nurseries. If you purchase from sources outside of WA, you must notify the Washington State Department of Agriculture of their arrival, and schedule an inspection.  More information on “planting clean” and WA quarantines are found here:

 

 

Getting Started

 

Vineyard Design Considerations

 

Washington State: Geology and Climate

  • AgWeatherNet –  The source for Washington State weather data.
  • Geologic Map of Washington (ZIP) – A great map that describes the geological features of the state. (link will open a  .zip file from the Washington State DNR).
  • Western Regional Climate Center – Historical information regarding growing degree days, temperature, precipitation, wind speed and directions for a number of locations in the Western United States.
  • Normal Climate Maps for United States – Use this site to get frost/freeze data for the past 30 years, precipitation data, and more through the NOAA.
  • 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Maps –  Determine the 30-year average absolute minimum temperatures for a particular area.  Is your site appropriate for winter-tender vines?

 

Soils

Soil Types

Soil Testing and Remediation

 

Variety and Rootstock Selection

Variety selection is dependent on what is best suited for your site and what you can market/sell. Consult potential fruit customers and winemakers before heavily investing in large plantings.

Plant Sources

The Clean Plant Center Northwest maintains a list of Washington and Oregon Nurseries who cell certified vines.  This list is not exhaustive, but is a good starting place to determine where to source plant material.   Please see the opening statement at the top of this page regarding WA quarantines and regulations relating to the import of out-of-state grapevine materials.

  • Clean Plant Center Northwest– Check out the current availability of different varieties in the Washington State Grape Foundation Block. Nurseries have top priority in purchasing plant material from the CPCNW, but in many cases, they are able to accommodate smaller private orders if sufficient plant material is available.
  • National Grape Registry – A great database out of California of different grape varieties and clones available in the USA. This is not a source of plant material, but may help you locate a nursery that cells a certified version of the variety or clone you are looking for.
  • Grape Genetic Testing and Identification – A service provided by the Foundation Plant Service out of UC-Davis that can determine the variety/cultivar of an unknown grapevine. Clonal identification is currently not available.

Variety Information

Rootstock Information

 

Trellis Design and Vine Training

Field-Grafting Grapevines

Other Resources

Viticulture Courses

Take individual programs from the Viticulture Certificate Course, and custom-build your knowledge base.  Choose from courses on General Grape Production, Economics, Irrigation, Disease and Insect Management, and Soils and Nutrition.

Organic Certification

Washington Tilth Association is a statewide nonprofit organization dedicated to provide support for and promotion of biologically sound and socially equitable agriculture.

WSDA Organic Food Program – Provides information on the procedures of becoming certified organic, and is a certifying agency for growers.

USDA National Organic Program – The NOP develops and administers national production, handling, and labeling standards for organic agricultural products.

Washington AVAs

Planting within an existing AVA (PDF) has many marketing advantages.

Need a Consultant?

Washington Winegrowers Association, an industry organization in Washington, has a list of private consultants that can help you with the details of vineyard establishment. Visit the Washington Winegrowers Service and Supplier webpage for more information.

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